The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (2023)

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (1)

I amPart 1I discussed design processes and disciplines that influence AT's security design process.In this second part I, zoom in the anatomy of the ot cyber attack on how this is related to the design process.And I will use the quantitative risk in cyber security design discuss, a discussion of a discussion, a discussion, a discussion, a discussion, a discussion about the design of cybernetics, a discussion, a discussion, a cyber design discussion.Controversial topic that many approached as "not possible".

First, let's define what I consider in the context of this article as an AT cyber attack:

"A cyber attack of OT is a cyberspace attack that points to the process automation system of a manufacturing system with the objective of interruption, deactivation, damage or malicious tax systems and installation."

With this definition, I ignore the possible interruption of business -based business functions as a result of their dependence on the process automation system (or vice -versa).

My focus in this article is in attack scenarios that try to damage the production unit and cause a shock absorber or explosions.My imaginary goal will be a process unit with its equipment modules in a petrochemical system.A chemical system in units (eg a reactor), device modules (eg a pump) and control modules (eg a pressure control loop).These device modules have a typical configuration, the risks and solutions of the process are often resolved in a similar way if we take a look at the P&D (piping and instrumentation) device, we can quickly recognize the dangers that a cyber attack canto take.

As usual, I try to address the AT security design task from a holistic perspective, identify the dangers of the production process and seek a solution by combining the task of OT safety design with the results of process and design tasks tasks.Of particular security, security design plays a fundamental function here.If you start the design process, the first questions to ask: How does it work?What can go wrong?What are we going to happen?How can we prevent this?Restrict the damage?

Let's start the discussion discussing the model of an OT cyber attack.

For a successful attack, a threat player must intend to attack;the technical ability to comply with the attack;and the opportunity to perform the attack.If one of these three factors does not have, the threat player will not be successful.

Threat players differ a lot in skills, available resources, opportunities and reasons.

For example, threat players may be insiders with direct access to process automation systems or outsiders who need to find other routes for the process automation system, for example, using network connectivity.

(Video) Cyber Security Demo for Industrial Control Systems

Insiders may have access to critical information such as network addresses, topology designs, accounts of accounts and sometimes even accounts.

We call these process threat profiles.Examination of the motivations and methods of an opponent.Threatening is the first step in the design of a cyber attack resistant automation system.It is always important to know which category of threats that defend the systems.There is a big difference if we need to defend ourselves against internal government invaders and attacks, or if we can project our security deficiencies based on non-governmental actors such as cyber criminals and hacktivists.

Another difference is the goal, for example, if the potential goal is part of the national critical infrastructure, for example, for example, a pipeline, or whether the goal is a non -strategic system.Factors of the dealer, such as the geographical place where the plant is also different.Geographical location.

We have to collect and analyze this information to understand what threats within the threat player's abilities are and what kind of weaknesses are exposed to the threat player to enjoy 2 threats in real risk analysts usually use at least 8 categories.

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (2)

Threat actors perform attack actions that are performed by tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) of their trade.In terms of difference in the areas of skills, resources and differences in "contact frequency" with the system, select different threats.And it has green circles, green means that the threat player has skills and skills, and red means that he cannot use this threat action or not.

Threats use goal weaknesses, which are shown as various concentric circles.Threats are defined at the functional level and can in principle use various weaknesses.For example, threat actors may be a news injection, a method this can explore various vulnerabilities.Any susceptibility to safety is protected by a safety measure. In general, we need various security measures to stop an OT-Ciber attack.From a risk perspective, safety measures can be implemented with yes (green circle) /no (red circle).The switch on and off may examine a risk estimate of various defense strategies.

To the left of the upper event (the circle in the middle), we have preventive safety measures, which reduces the chance of success.

If we evaluate the frequency of the threat action event, along with the risk reduction in preventive safety measures and the various risk factors that determine static and dynamic exposure, a frequency of events that is goal failure.

Safety measures In this context, not only external additional safety controls are just like firewalls and painting protection, but also contain the many configuration settings in the goal that the system protects, for example, several reading/writing protection settings.

Several security measures are usually combined with a single safety check. For example, a next generation firewall usually contains several safety measures.The goal is an element of a process automation function, for example an operational station or a controller.A superior event can be something like "unauthorized access to the operations station."It can be achieved which threat players can use for TTP to do this and which security measures can stop.and settings for automation design that reduces the risk.

(Video) Anatomy of a Cyber Attack

In the diagram, detective controls are shown on the right side of the upper event.Detective control can also have a preventive function if used in combination with an automatic reaction (eg in an IPS) and therefore can also be used on the left side.I wanted to make the choice to put it on the right side. These safety measures reduce the severity of the consequence.They act after security violation, an example is a backup.

The most important thing is yellow circles in the drawing, which exhibit the technical consequences and functional deviations at the end as a result of the TT cyber attack.

Each goal has a definite series of functions, for example, it is probably not a process controller certainly intention to protect due to the T -cyber attack.

The consequences must be defined at a level where they can be connected to procedures identified in the process of security of the -Hazop / Lopa process.

A consequence, such as loss of control, is therefore a useless effect on detailed risk analysis.Loss of control window integrity, automated control loss, loss of tax integrity, alarm loss, loss of command integrity are more different with functionality.

We call these error modes, different automation functions and their components have different error modes.However, the error modes of a process controller and a SPS overlap also differ from essential points.Error modes differ for automation functions and sometimes differ by provider for the same function.However, we structured the various technical deviations that can be used later when analyzing the risk master.

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (3)

Not every threat action can cause any functional deviation, it depends on the definition of the upper event.A superior event, such as "unauthorized access to an engineering station", has different functional deviations for similar threats, such as "unauthorized access to a 24 × 7 visited operational station." This is because you have a different task, although bothare essentially a Microsoft -Desktop computer. A superior event, such as “unauthorized access to a non -assisted operational station” may have other defined controls.

Security measures may also differ and static and dynamic exposure may differ differently. In general, the same series of threats leads to a different probability.Not necessarily as a probability.The formula is also used to determine the risk of terrorism.This formula has the advantage that we can treat the threat player differently from the cyber resistance of the function.

The frequency of the event can be converted to probability if we need this, for example, if we have a frequency of events of 1 times in a thousand years, which gives a probability that the event will take place over the next 10 years of 0.01 10 years isan example. We generally use a period that meets the life expectancy of the system function.

Event frequencies were defined by the government for various types of effects, there are criteria for individual risk (employees within investment, social risk (publicly outside the system) and environmental risk. Governments do so to restrict the risk.

(Video) Building a Secure OT Network | SANS ICS Concepts

Figure 4 shows some examples of European countries, in this case for individual risk criteria.The reliability of the process defines the annuality of the goal so, the maximum frequency of events for a certain level of impact.These criteria come from these regulatory criteria and corporate policy.

They differ by country, differ by type of risk and differ by company.stOT Cyber Law discussed inPART 1The security project must meet these criteria, as incidents as a result of a process automation error can lead to deaths in the petrochemical and oil and gas industry.

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (4)

If we withdraw in Figure 2 for the anatomy of cyber attacks, we can find that functional deviations resulting from cyber attack may be connected to the cause or lop / hazop analysis protection measures.I number in the drawing (Figure 2) from 1 to 5:

  1. This is the scenario where attack on two functions should aim to cause the problem, for example, the Basic Process Control System (BPCs) and the Instrumented Security System (SIS).The BPCs) cause, and the second is to prevent the intervention SIS from preventing it.
  2. This is the scenario where an attack on a single function, for example, BPCs is sufficient to cause damage.This can sometimes be as simple as all alarms.This is usually configured as a separate service with a specific TCP address, so a simple ARP poisoning attack that creates a well for this traffic would be sufficient.
  3. In scenario 3, we take the SIS, the ESD function (emergency shutdown).To stop.The pump damages it.
  4. There are also cases where SIS does not intervene, usually not for process scenarios with deaths, but stopped scenery that can lead to serious damage.If the proportion of oxygen becomes too high, it can lead to an explosion.
  5. This scenario captures the fire brigade and the gas controller (FGS).If the FGS has recognized a leak, it can stop the pump and feed to the leakage.However, an attack may change these actions.

The 5 scenarios above are the most common scenarios that can be used by a cyber attack, but there are also other less obvious scenarios.

In the text above, we built cyber attack scenarios for a certain danger / function and bind them to the security scenarios of the Hazop / Lopa process.We call these scenarios scenarios, as these scenarios indicate a certain loss if this scenario developed.The probability of this scenario is no longer the probability of process reliability, which is based on random failures, but now it is the likelihood of the cyber attack scenario caused by deliberate measures.-Document.

We ignore the effects of a cyber attack on business functions. If we had included this in the risk assessment area, we would also need loss scenarios for this part of the design.

You may have discovered that all cyber attacks have been defined as a risk of a single function.The idea is that if all functions correspond to risk criteria, the overall rate of valuable events resulting (or probability) also meets the requirements for system automation.

Unfortunately, it is rare for all components to meet the criteria.It always gives functions/components that do not exist.In Figure 5, for example, we show all these cyber dangers with their threats and consequences.To offer security measures, we can define a handling/writing handling protection, but that's all.Field equipment, sensors and actuators usually do not protect itself strongly.This access to these functions can only be performed by stronger protected functions that correspond to the criteria.

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (5)

In such cases, a single stage analysis is no longer possible and we need to consider attacks at various cyber stages and attacks that step by step in the system.

(Video) ICS612 – Practitioner focused Hands on cybersecurity

In the example of Figure 5 (right diagram) from the point where an extinction terminal server (TS) can be used and used as a platform to attack the next jump in the scenario, the next leap would be the instrument classification system (IAMSS).If this second step is successful, we can enter the field equipment from there and possibly cause deviation from the process that leads to the loss scenario we analyze.

In this case, we have to use the probabilities, because we need to appreciate the conditional probability that all steps of the scenario are successful.And there is a disjunctive.There are also scenarios where this is not the case where we have dependent events (therefore, the probability of the next step is influenced by the likelihood of the previous step), but I leave this level of detail for another article.The purpose of this two -part article is to show that cyber security is much more than the firewall configuration.

At the moment, the news is that we need to create a risk record when creating a system and protection to analyze the various aspects.A risk record is the compilation of loss scenarios that we can analyze in many ways.Normally, thousands of scenarios that we take into account all the variations caused by the number of threats, threats, weaknesses and consequences actors.

If we have a risk record, we can group the threat actors and verify the risk of a specific group of threats. We can consider the risk by process automation function or a combination of functions (which can see certain types of TTP, much more.

Obviously, this is not a manual construction effort and requires tools to create this risk record. However, the result offers a wealth of information that can be used to make the right security design decisions based on real loss scenarios.

The anatomy of the plant design and the cyber attack of the OT - Part 2 - Cyber Industrial (6)

Sinclair Koelemij

45 years of process automation experience, of which 25 years in process control and 20 years in networks / security for process automation systems.42 years of maintenance, engineering and protects experience with basic control solutions (basic control)and process security.Implementation of control and safety solutions for over 100 different systems for asset owners.Of small facilities (100,000 and/o).Certificate in process development, network, cyber security and risk analysis.A global team of more than 350 OT experts, around 250 experienced consultants, both, qualitative cyber risk analysis for automation solutions / automation installations of various suppliers, such as Honeywell, Yokogawa, Emerson and installations.B, Siemens andSchneider.No no relationship between my opinions and information about posts on my blogs and my employer's opinions in all functions.This blog is written based on my opinion and personal knowledge that accumulates in this sector for over 45 years.

(Video) Compromised Vendor Website | The Top 20 Cyber Attacks on Industrial Control Systems #14 | iSi


What are the 5 types of cyber attacks? ›

Types of Cyber Attacks
  • Malware Attack. This is one of the most common types of cyberattacks. ...
  • Phishing Attack. Phishing attacks are one of the most prominent widespread types of cyberattacks. ...
  • Password Attack. ...
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attack. ...
  • SQL Injection Attack. ...
  • Denial-of-Service Attack. ...
  • Insider Threat. ...
  • Cryptojacking.
11 Nov 2022

What are the 3 most common cyber attacks? ›

Below are some of the most common types of cyber-attacks: Malware. Phishing. Man-in-the-middle attack (MITM)

Which of the following cyber attack was carried out against industrial control systems? ›


In 2012, in one of the biggest cyberattacks on industrial facilities, the oil giant Saudi Aramco became the target of a malware attack. The attack was carried out by a group called Sword of Justice with an aim to cripple the oil giant's internal computer network.

What are the examples of cyber attack? ›

17 Different Types of Cyber Attacks
  • Malware-based attacks (Ransomware, Trojans, etc.)
  • Phishing attacks (spear phishing, whaling, etc.)
  • Man-in-the-middle attacks.
  • Denial of Service attacks (DOS and DDoS)
  • SQL Injection attacks.
  • DNS Tunneling.
  • Zero-day exploits and attacks.
  • Password attacks.
3 Oct 2022

What are the 7 types of cyber security? ›

The Different Types of Cybersecurity
  • Network Security. Most attacks occur over the network, and network security solutions are designed to identify and block these attacks. ...
  • Cloud Security. ...
  • Endpoint Security. ...
  • Mobile Security. ...
  • IoT Security. ...
  • Application Security. ...
  • Zero Trust.

What are the six 6 types of attacks on network security? ›

Six Types of Cyber Attacks to Protect Against
  • Malware. Malware is an umbrella term for many forms of harmful software — including ransomware and viruses — that sabotage the operation of computers. ...
  • Phishing. ...
  • SQL Injection Attack. ...
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attack. ...
  • Denial of Service (DoS) Attack. ...
  • Negative Commentary Attacks.

What are types of attacks? ›

Common types of cyber attacks
  • Malware. Malware is a term used to describe malicious software, including spyware, ransomware, viruses, and worms. ...
  • Phishing. ...
  • Man-in-the-middle attack. ...
  • Denial-of-service attack. ...
  • SQL injection. ...
  • Zero-day exploit. ...
  • DNS Tunneling.

Who are the main targets of cyber attacks? ›

While this list of industries seems broad, they include small to midsized businesses that are often under attack with phishing or ransomware schemes.
  • Manufacturing.
  • Healthcare.
  • Government Agencies.
  • Financial.
  • Construction.
26 Apr 2022

What are the top 3 targeted industries for cyber attacks? ›

Financial, health, intellectual, and government information are the most likely to be stolen. This determines which industries are most vulnerable to data breaches. There's an ongoing argument about the ranking, but the five industries at risk of cyber attacks among them are: Public administration.

What are the four 4 main types of security attack commonly observed? ›

  • Malware attack. Malware is the name given to hostile or dangerous elements that usually breach a network through vulnerability. ...
  • Phishing attack. This type of attack usually occurs over emails and targets personal information. ...
  • Drive-by attack. ...
  • Password attack.

What are the 3 types of access control in cyber security? ›

Three main types of access control systems are: Discretionary Access Control (DAC), Role Based Access Control (RBAC), and Mandatory Access Control (MAC).

What are the 3 key prevention measures of cyber attacks? ›

Essential cyber security measures
  • Use strong passwords. Strong passwords are vital to good online security. ...
  • Control access to data and systems. ...
  • Put up a firewall. ...
  • Use security software. ...
  • Update programs and systems regularly. ...
  • Monitor for intrusion. ...
  • Raise awareness.

What is cyber attack answer? ›

A cyber attack is an attempt to disable computers, steal data, or use a breached computer system to launch additional attacks. Cybercriminals use different methods to launch a cyber attack that includes malware, phishing, ransomware, man-in-the-middle attack, or other methods.

What are the causes of cyber attacks? ›

Most often, cyber attacks happen because criminals want your:
  • business' financial details.
  • customers' financial details (eg credit card data)
  • sensitive personal data.
  • customers' or staff email addresses and login credentials.
  • customer databases.
  • clients lists.
  • IT infrastructure.

What is cyber attack short answer? ›

A cyber attack is an assault launched by cybercriminals using one or more computers against a single or multiple computers or networks. A cyber attack can maliciously disable computers, steal data, or use a breached computer as a launch point for other attacks.

What are the 10 common types of cyber threats? ›

Top 10 common types of cyber security attacks
  • Malware.
  • Phishing.
  • Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks.
  • Denial-of-Service (DOS) Attack.
  • SQL Injections.
  • Zero-day Exploit.
  • Password Attack.
  • Cross-site Scripting.
31 Jan 2022

What are the 6 common types of threats? ›

The six types of security threat
  • Cybercrime. Cybercriminals' principal goal is to monetise their attacks. ...
  • Hacktivism. Hacktivists crave publicity. ...
  • Insiders. ...
  • Physical threats. ...
  • Terrorists. ...
  • Espionage.
25 Mar 2015

What are the 5 best methods used for cyber security? ›

10 steps to an effective approach to cyber security
  • Risk management regime. ...
  • Secure configuration. ...
  • Network security. ...
  • Managing user privileges. ...
  • User education and awareness. ...
  • Incident management. ...
  • Malware prevention. ...
  • Monitoring.

What are 4 methods of threat detection? ›

Generally, all threat detection falls into four major categories: Configuration, Modeling, Indicator, and Threat Behavior. There is no best type of threat detection. Each category can support different requirements and approaches depending on the business requirement.

What are the 2 basic types of attacks? ›

There are two types of attacks that are related to security namely passive and active attacks. In an active attack, an attacker tries to modify the content of the messages. In a passive attack, an attacker observes the messages and copies them.

What are the 3 main types of password attacks? ›

Six Types of Password Attacks & How to Stop Them
  • Phishing. Phishing is when a hacker posing as a trustworthy party sends you a fraudulent email, hoping you will reveal your personal information voluntarily. ...
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attack. ...
  • Brute Force Attack. ...
  • Dictionary Attack. ...
  • Credential Stuffing. ...
  • Keyloggers.

What are basic attacks? ›

A basic attack (also called a standard, normal, or auto attack) is the default means by which a unit deals damage.

What attacks explain? ›

What Does Attack Mean? An attack is an information security threat that involves an attempt to obtain, alter, destroy, remove, implant or reveal information without authorized access or permission. It happens to both individuals and organizations.

What are 3 different attacks on a network? ›

What are the Common Types of Network Attacks?
  • Unauthorized access. Unauthorized access refers to attackers accessing a network without receiving permission. ...
  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. ...
  • Man in the middle attacks. ...
  • Code and SQL injection attacks. ...
  • Privilege escalation. ...
  • Insider threats.

What are the biggest challenges in cyber security today? ›

Ransomware Attacks

Ransomware is the biggest concern now in the digital world. In the year 2021, there were an unprecedented number of ransomware attacks, and that trend is projected to continue into 2022.

What are the biggest cybersecurity threats right now? ›

Ransomware is considered to be one of the biggest cyber security threats in 2022 and poses a serious cyber threat to businesses of all sizes. Ransomware attacks work by infecting your network and locking down your data and computer systems until a ransom is paid to the hacker.

What are the top 5 biggest cyber threats to organization? ›

Top 5 most common cyber threats to watch out for today
  1. Social engineering attacks (or phishing) ...
  2. Ransomware. ...
  3. Mobile security attacks. ...
  4. Remote working risks. ...
  5. Identity-based cloud security threats.
5 Jul 2022

Which sector is most affected by cyber attacks? ›

Every Industry Is At Risk Of A Cyberattack

And those organizations with the most at risk, namely healthcare and manufacturing, continue to be some of the most vulnerable due to the lack of security around third-party access.

What are the most common attacks that target Lot devices? ›

Common IoT Attacks
  • Eavesdropping. ...
  • Malicious Node Injection. ...
  • Firmware Hijacking. ...
  • DDoS. ...
  • Physical Tampering. ...
  • Implement Public Key Infrastructure and Digital Certificates. ...
  • Password-Protect. ...
  • Setup Physical Protection.
7 Jul 2022

What are the most common types of cyber attacks that enterprises face in recent years? ›

Here you will find information about common online security risks, with simple advice on what you can do to protect yourself and your family.
  • Cryptomining. ...
  • Data spill. ...
  • Denial of Service. ...
  • Hacking. ...
  • Identity theft. ...
  • Malicious insiders. ...
  • Malware. ...
  • Phishing - scam emails.

What are the 5 phases of an attack? ›

Cyber Security: Understanding the 5 Phases of Intrusion

What are the top 7 network attack types? ›

7 Types of Cyber Security Threats
  1. Malware. Malware is malicious software such as spyware, ransomware, viruses and worms. ...
  2. Emotet. ...
  3. Denial of Service. ...
  4. Man in the Middle. ...
  5. Phishing. ...
  6. SQL Injection. ...
  7. Password Attacks.

What are 4 types of active attack? ›

What Are the Types of Active Attack?
  • Session Hijacking Attack​ A session hijacking attack is a form of active attack in which the attacker will take over your internet session. ...
  • Message Modification Attack​ ...
  • Masquerade Attack​ ...
  • Denial-of-Service Attack​ ...
  • Distributed Denial-of-Service Attack​ ...
  • Trojans​

What are the four 4 main access control model? ›

Currently, there are four primary types of access control models: mandatory access control (MAC), role-based access control (RBAC), discretionary access control (DAC), and rule-based access control (RBAC).

What are the 4 steps involved in access control? ›

The typical access control process includes identification, authentication, authorization, and auditing.

What are the four 4 CyberSecurity risk treatment mitigation methods? ›

The Four Types of Risk Mitigation

There are four types of risk mitigation strategies that hold unique to Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery: risk acceptance, risk avoidance, risk limitation, and risk transference.

What are some ways one can protect themselves from cyber attacks at least 5 solutions? ›

5 easy tips to protect yourself - today
  • Check if you've already been involved in a data breach. Visit and change those passwords for any accounts that it suggests may have been compromised.
  • Check the strength of your passwords. ...
  • Avoid these passwords. ...
  • Trust no one (on emails) ...
  • Secure your device.

Why is cyber attack important? ›

Why Is Cyber Security Increasingly Important? Getting hacked isn't just a direct threat to the confidential data companies need. It can also ruin their relationships with customers and even place them in significant legal jeopardy.

What is the impact of a cyber attack? ›

The most serious effect of a cyberattack is the loss of reputation. Consider the data breaches that have affected Equifax, Target, and J.P. Morgan Chase — each of these companies lost their clients' personal data, including social security numbers, bank account information, and credit card numbers.

How are cyber attacks prevented? ›

Limit the personal information you share online. Change privacy settings and do not use location features. Keep software applications and operating systems up-to-date. Create strong passwords by using upper and lower case letters, numbers and special characters.

How can we prevent cybercrime? ›

Using anti-virus or a comprehensive internet security solution like Kaspersky Total Security is a smart way to protect your system from attacks. Anti-virus software allows you to scan, detect and remove threats before they become a problem.

What is a cyber attack give an example? ›

Cyber attacks occur when an individual, group, or organized gang attempts to maliciously breach the security system of another person or organization. While this might prompt you to envision hackers breaking into an online banking system to steal billions, the most common example of a cyber attack is a data breach.

Why is it called cyber? ›

"Cyber" is a prefix used to describe a person, thing, or idea as part of the computer and information age. Taken from kybernetes, Greek for "steersman" or "governor," it was first used in cybernetics, a word coined by Norbert Wiener and his colleagues. Common usages include cyberculture, cyberpunk, and cyberspace.

What are the 8 common cyber threats? ›

Inside the Top Cyber Threats
  • Ransomware. Ransomware is malware designed to use encryption to force the target of the attack to pay a ransom demand. ...
  • Malware. ...
  • Fileless Attacks. ...
  • Phishing. ...
  • Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attack. ...
  • Malicious Apps. ...
  • Denial of Service Attack. ...
  • Zero-Day Exploit.

What are the biggest cybersecurity threats right now 2022? ›


Ransomware is considered to be one of the biggest cyber security threats in 2022 and poses a serious cyber threat to businesses of all sizes. Ransomware attacks work by infecting your network and locking down your data and computer systems until a ransom is paid to the hacker.

What is the most common cybercrime? ›

5 most common types of cybercrimes:
  • Phishing scams: ...
  • Internet fraud: ...
  • Online intellectual property infringements: ...
  • Identity theft: ...
  • Online harassment and cyberstalking:

Why is cyber security important? ›

Cybersecurity is crucial because it safeguards all types of data against theft and loss. Sensitive data, protected health information (PHI), personally identifiable information (PII), intellectual property, personal information, data, and government and business information systems are all included.

What are 2 types of threats? ›

Threats can be classified into four different categories; direct, indirect, veiled, conditional.

What are 3 challenges of cyber security? ›

Here are the top 5 challenges that the cybersecurity industry is facing today:
  • Remote Work. The COVID-19 pandemic has forever changed the workplace and how it is secured. ...
  • Cloud Attacks. ...
  • Phishing Scams. ...
  • Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Attacks. ...
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Attacks.
26 Aug 2022

What are the 3 major threats to cyber security today? ›

Types of Cybersecurity Threats
  • Viruses—a piece of code injects itself into an application. ...
  • Worms—malware that exploits software vulnerabilities and backdoors to gain access to an operating system. ...
  • Trojans—malicious code or software that poses as an innocent program, hiding in apps, games or email attachments.

What are five tips for cyber safety? ›

Essential internet safety tips
  • #1: Make sure your internet connection is secure. ...
  • #2: Choose strong passwords. ...
  • #3: Enable multi-factor authentication where you can. ...
  • #4: Keep software and operating systems up-to-date. ...
  • #5: Check that websites look and feel reliable.

What is a cyber threat give 2 examples? ›

A cyber or cybersecurity threat is a malicious act that seeks to damage data, steal data, or disrupt digital life in general. Cyber threats include computer viruses, data breaches, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, and other attack vectors.

What are 4 examples of threats? ›

9 examples of threats in a SWOT analysis
  • Social perception. With the rise of social media, consumers are increasingly aware of the business practices of the companies they support. ...
  • Natural disasters. ...
  • Technological changes. ...
  • Legislation. ...
  • Competition. ...
  • Globalization. ...
  • Data security. ...
  • Rising costs.

What are threats example? ›

Threats. Threats refer to factors that have the potential to harm an organization. For example, a drought is a threat to a wheat-producing company, as it may destroy or reduce the crop yield. Other common threats include things like rising costs for materials, increasing competition, tight labor supply.


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